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Africa & Europe 1800 - 1914

ole timer Jan 31, 2015

  1. ole timer

    ole timer Forum Owner Forum Owner

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    Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition…
    Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected."
    Taken from Culture and Imperialism, Edward W. Said.

    The nineteenth century saw immense changes in Africa. Some were driven by famine and disease. Some changes were the result of the territorial ambitions of African rulers. As the century progressed alliances with merchants and missionaries from Europe began increasingly to have a bearing on how African leaders achieved their goals.

    At the beginning of the century, Europeans were still hugely ignorant of the continent. The systematic colonisation of Africa, which gathered momentum in the 1880's, was not even on the horizon in the first half of the 19th century. Europeans had confined themselves to trading mainly along the coast. Inland the trade in slaves and commodities was handled by African and Arab merchants.

    With the British abolition of the slave trade in 1807, the British navy took to patrolling the coasts, intercepting other nations's slave ships.

    In the last two decades of the 19th century conflicts and rivalries in Europe began to affect people in Africa directly. In the 1880's European powers divided Africa up amongst themselves without the consent of people living there, and with limited knowledge of the land they had taken.

    In 1914 conflict in Europe came to a head and the First World War broke out. The contribution of African people to the war effort was crucial.

    Listen to Africa on the Eve of Colonialism, the seventeenth programme in the BBC landmark radio series The Story of Africa, presented by Hugh Quarshie

    Listen to Partition & Resistance , the nineteenth programme in the BBC landmark radio series The Story of Africa, presented by Hugh Quarshie
     
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    ole timer Forum Owner Forum Owner

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    Black Explorers

    At its widest point, from West to East Africa is 4,600 miles wide (7,400 km) and 5,000 miles long from North to South (8,000 km). The North of Africa, or the Maghreb as it is known in Arabic, is separated off from the rest of the continent by desert which forms a band some 3,000 miles (4,830 km) across the northern part of the continent. Throughout history the people of Africa have made immense journeys. Some were one-way journeys involving the complete relocation of a society.

    There were three main reasons for making these long and dangerous journeys:

    · Trade
    · Famine and climate change, and
    · War

    GROWING RICH WITH SLAVERY
    For thousands of years merchants made the trip across the Sahara, taking gold and slaves from the interior of West Africa up to the North and bringing back textiles and finished goods, later guns.

    The journey could take three months with temperatures as high as 135 degrees Fahrenheit, falling to freezing point at night. It was a test of endurance for merchants, camels and slaves alike. A typical caravan in the 19th century would not have been much different from one of the 11th century, comprising about 1400 camels and four hundred merchants and slaves.

    "The camels walked slowly and with effort for they were almost exhausted…The sight of this numerous caravan, destitute of water, scattered over the arid land, was truly dismal…the plain was interspersed with hills of coarse red sand mixed with gravel…The heat was stifling…The allowance of water was every time more and more scanty. We suffered beyond all expression."
    Excerpt from Journal d'un Voyage a Temboctou et a Jenne dans l'Afrique Centrale, by Rene Caillie.

    CENTRAL AFRICA
    The Nymawezi people and the Yao, were also prodigious travelers, moving from the East coast to the centre of Africa looking for slaves and ivory.

    The Arab-African merchant Tippu Tip made himself a fortune by ceaseless journeys into the interior to capture and sell slaves. He proved indispensable to H.M. Stanley, the brutal, self-glorifying American news reporter, who was looking for the missionary David Livingstone. Stanley's men were on the point of revolt, having been worked six months beyond their engagement of two years. Tippu Tip saved the day with a rousing address:

    "… they said: 'This European is a churl. He gives us nothing without putting it down - not even clothes does he give us; not a single loin fabric does he give.' I said to them: 'let that be my care. I will give you as much as you want. Only go on.'

    Then they answered me: 'What then are we to do? We are not afraid of you, because of the words you have spoken. But with this European we have nothing to do. Our time was up more than six months ago.' But I said to them: 'Your words are idle. Do as I tell you.' And they did."
    From Tippoo Tip: The Story of His Career in Central Africa, by Heinrich Brode.

    Listen to historian Abdul Sheriff introduce Tippu Tip's autobiography followed by a BBC dramatisation of the slave trader's own writing.

    Every European explorer owed his life to experienced African travelers. Stanley was grudging in his appreciation of Tippu Tip. Others, like the Hungarian anthropologist Emil Torday, who traveled through the Congo in the 1900's, paid fulsome tribute to his Bambala guide:

    "…Mayuyu was the best of all. Higher praise is impossible. It was always Mayuyu who went to reconnoitre; it was Mayuyu who by his charming ways and invariably good temper managed to dispose the natives in our favour even before our arrival… He answered insults with flattery, sufficiently tinged with sarcasm not to be mistaken for fear.

    An invitation to a fight met with ready acceptance - on condition that the challenger accepted an invitation to a dinner, previous to combat 'Let us talk before we kill each other; we won't be able to do it after,' he would say - and the swashbuckler was appeased by his blandishments."

    WEST AFRICA
    Although best remembered as the first black Anglican Bishop, Samuel Crowther did an immense amount of travelling in the course of his work as a missionary. His passion for exploring was already evident in 1830 in Sierra Leone where he worked as a school teacher, but he devoted his spare time to visiting Temne villages.

    Through his missionary work he travelled up the Niger every year, for over twenty years of his life, only stopping when he was 84. His achievement as a traveler, linguist and student of different cultures was recognised by The Royal Geographical Society which rewarded him with a gold watch.

    AFRICAN AMERICAN EXPLORERS
    A number of travelers in Africa, while not being African, were of African descent. The restless civil war veteran and journalist George Washington Williams journeyed all round Africa, stopping off in Cairo, Zanzibar and South Africa.

    He spent six months going through the Congo by foot and on steamer, witnessing first hand the horrors of forced labour under the Belgian regime there, leaving him "disenchanted, disappointed and disheartened." His accounts of what he saw at the hands of the Belgians contributed to raising public awareness of the brutal treatment of the people of the Congo.

    Recently the diaries of three African Americans who travelled in the interior of West Africa have come to light. The starting point of George Seymour and James Sims was Liberia where they had emigrated from America. But tiring of Monrovian society they set off, attracting interest and attention wherever they went, some friendly and some decidedly unwelcome.

    "Friday evening, the 15th of January, we entered Passilla, situated on the banks of St. Paul's river. This town consisted of some two hundred houses and a mixed population of Goulah and Passah people - who crowded around me in such a manner that I was nearly suffocated. I was not a little surprised at this, nor could I conjecture what it was about my person, unless it was my clothes, that attracted their attention; as nearly one half of the people in the town was of a lighter complexion than myself.

    But the great secret was simply this - I was a 'white man' - white because I was a 'Merica man' - 'Merica man, because I Sarvy book,' and every body who 'Sarvy book,' except the Mandingoes, are 'white.' They say the Mandingoes would be white too if they would only dress like white people.

    I did all that I could to convince them that I was not white, but I was unsuccessful; they would have it that I was white, and therefore I had to undergo, and submit to the most minute inspection. The inspectors were chiefly ladies, and very inquisitive ones too."
    Quoted from Freedom to Roam, African Americans Journeys Inland from Liberia in the 19th century, by Dr. James Fairhead, Tim Geysbeek, Professor Svend Holso and Dr. Melissa Leach

    Levin Ash, born a freeman in America where slavery was still practised in the southern states, now found himself in danger of losing his freedom in Africa.

    "Brother Ash was absent twenty-three days; and, when he returned, he was an object of pity. I had myself fallen away in flesh, from being dreadfully scratched with grass. Brother Ash was bare headed, and looked very wild.

    After he got a little rested, he informed me that, when we were attacked, he put down his knapsack, and gave the native sign of battle, by flourishing his walking stick. They followed his motion by a charge of arrows, which came so plentifully, that he soon took to the water, dove like a duck, but one arrow hit him, which was in the shoulder blade. It stuck in his flesh, and it was some time before he got it out, in the water. In the creek he lost his cap…

    He continued his journey from day to day, till he was arrested, stripped naked, and a large stick fastened to his leg by an iron strap. He was kept in this condition ten days. He was then taken as a slave, with one hand tied to his neck, and driven to the large towns to be sold for a gun; but they could make no sale of him, and took him back to the town where he was captured; and after being without his clothes fifteen days, they were restored to him."
    Quoted from Freedom to Roam, African Americans Journeys inland from Liberia in the 19th century.

    EXPLORERS OF NORTH AFRICA
    Making long journeys is central to the Islamic culture. Every Muslim tries to visit the Holy City of Mecca, at least once in a lifetime. This hadj or pilgrimage can be an immense journey taking months, depending on where the pilgrim lives. And if you are travelling in a land where Muslims live then you can be sure of hospitality. Another central tenet of Islam is going out and finding converts.

    Added to this is the academic tradition describing and noting strange and new societies. So there were three main reasons Muslims took to the road:

    • Observing the faith by going on pilgrimage
    • Spreading the faith among nonbelievers, and
    • Academic interest

    The earliest documented Muslim explorer was the Arab Ibn Haukal who in the 10th century, went to the ancient Kingdom of Ghana (part of modern Mali). Three hundred years later the learned Berber Ibn Battuta travelled both in West and East Africa. In the 16th century Leo Africanus, who was born in Granada of North African descent (he would have been described as a Moor), travelled extensively in West Africa. He visited Hausaland (modern northern Nigeria) Timbuktu and Bornu. He saw the Niger but thought it flowed to the West
     
  3. ole timer

    ole timer Forum Owner Forum Owner

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    White Explorers

    European explorers shared some of the reasons for travelling round Africa with Muslim fellow travelers, but had others peculiar to the time. They went in search of:

    • scientific & geographical knowledge
    • fame and celebrity, and
    • people to convert to Christianity

    POWER AND KNOWLEDGE
    European travelers hugely increased a general understanding of geography, climate and resources. Some accounts of the people were objective (as far as an outsider can be objective), others were willfully misleading. All the information these travelers brought back - wrong and right - contributed to devising an imperial strategy for controlling Africa.

    SOURCES OF RIVERS
    For Europeans the golden age of travelling was the early 19th century. The first half of the century was dominated by a desire to establish the sources of two of African's great trading arteries, the Niger and the Nile respectively.

    The sort of men who undertook journeys across regions which were unknown to Europe were in the main strong willed, eccentric, sometimes cruel and prejudiced. The African Association was founded in 1788 with the aim of finding Timbuktu and the origin of the Niger. The popular opinion for hundreds of years had been that the Niger was somewhere along the line, linked to the Nile.

    The Scots explorer Mungo Park died in 1805 trying to establish the truth, taking over 40 people with him. He relied on two African guides, Isaaco (described as "an African trader") and Amadi Fatouma. Other British travelers continued to look for the Niger including the Lander brothers.

    CENTRAL AFRICA
    The Englishman Denham and Scotsman Clapperton set off in 1822 in search of Central Africa. They argued the entire length of their journey from Kano to Lake Chad. Denham alone reached Mabah on the northern side of Lake Chad, but failed in his goal to get to the eastern side of the lake. He was accompanied by Arab merchant Bhoo Khaloom and Maramy, a slave of the king of Kouka.

    THE SAHARA
    The German, Heinrich Barth, explored the major trade routes of Sahara and Sahel, in particular Sokoto and Borno, writing a detailed five volume work. Rene Caillie, one of the few French explorers in West Africa, was the first European to have entered Timbuktu in the late 1820's. He nearly died crossing the Sahara disguised as a Muslim. Caillie was accused of making up the accounts of his trip, until Heinrich Barth verified it thirty years later.

    FALLING OUT
    In East Africa it was the sources of the Nile which exercised the European imagination. Commissioned by the Royal Geographical Society and the Foreign Office, Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke set off to find the origins of the Nile.

    Richard Burton determined to fulfill an ambition to go where no man (i.e. European) had been before. A brilliant linguist, Burton combined great scholarship with a sexually obsessive, sadistic turn of mind and sweeping prejudice. He teamed up with the energetic, boyish, but less bookish John Hanning Speke.

    After enduring great illness and hardship travelling from Zanzibar to Tanganikya, they parted company and then fell out publicly over the source of the Nile, with Speke dying mysteriously the day before a debate appointed to bring the two men and their theories together.

    ACROSS THE CONTINENT
    Perhaps the most famous British traveler of all was David Livingstone who was the first European, although not first African, to cross the continent from the Zambezi to Luanda on the West Coast. His experiences in Africa were described in sensational terms by the newspaper reporter turned traveler Henry Morton Stanley.

    Livingstone believed that imperialism would ultimately benefit people in Africa, but he could be an observant man with a sense of relative values; he could see the point of view of those who did not want to be converted:

    "The only avowed cause of dislike was expressed by a very influential and sensible man, the uncle of Sechele.

    'We like you as well as if you had been born among us; you are the only white man we can become familiar with; but we wish you to give up that everlasting preaching and praying; we cannot become familiar with that at all. You see we never get rain, while those tribes who never pray as we do obtain abundance.'

    This was a fact; and we often saw it raining on the hills ten miles off, while it would not look at us 'even with one eye.'"
    Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, by Dr. David Livingstone.

    In another instance, he gave a detailed account of the prejudices of the Afrikaners. His fellow explorer and devoted friend was Chuma. When Livingstone died at Lake Bangweulu, it was Chuma who organised the embalming of his body and made the ten month journey with his body back to Bagamoyo on the coast and on to Britain.

    WOMEN ON THE MOVE
    Mary Kingsley was one of the few women travelers of the 19th century. She moved around West Africa, finding out more about animals and plant life. She wrote with an unusual degree of detachment, wit and observance for her generation of Europeans. In the 1890's she visited Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola and Cameroun. She died while nursing soldiers during the Boer war in 1900
     
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    The European Scramble

    Commercial greed, territorial ambition, and political rivalry all fuelled the European race to take over Africa. This culminated in Africa's partition at the Berlin Conference 1884-5. The whole process became known as "The Scramble for Africa".

    ANGLO FRENCH RIVALRY
    Until the 19th century the French had played a smaller role in Africa than the British, but their defeat in the Napoleonic War made them look to Africa for compensation. North Africa became a theatre for Anglo-French rivalry, illustrated most dramatically by the Fashoda incident, where troops from both powers marched from opposite directions to meet in the wilderness in southern Sudan, bringing the two European powers to the brink of war.

    There were few French explorers but there was growing interest in the idea of using North Africa to play off the Germans against the British. This was what triggered off what became known as the "Scramble for Africa."

    "Gentlemen, in Europe such as it is today, in this competition of the many rivals we see rising up around us, some by military or naval improvements, others by the prodigious development of a constantly growing population; in a Europe, or rather in a universe thus constituted, a policy of withdrawal or abstention is simply the high road to decadence! In our time nations are great only through the activity they deploy; it is not by spreading the peaceable light of their institutions...that they are great, in the present day."
    Jules Ferry, Prime Minister of France [1880-1881, 1883-1885].

    EGYPT
    For centuries Egypt was ruled by the Ottomans based in what is now Turkey. Then in 1811 an Albanian army officer, Mohammed Ali, took power. Under his rule Egypt's economy and infrastructure expanded. Sudan fell under Egyptian control in the 1820s. By the middle of the century Britain grew concerned about Egypt's influence in the region and increasingly intervened in the commercial and political direction of the state.

    By the late 1870s a nationalist movement began to take root. Using a Government overspend as an excuse the French and British imposed dual control. Riots and military rebellion then prompted the British to send in an army of occupation in 1882. This provoked a rift between the British and the French.

    ALGERIA
    In 1830 the French occupied Algiers; they subsequently came up against the Berber jihad launched by the Qadiriyya brotherhood under the leadership of Abd al-Kadir. Persistent and tireless in his opposition to the French Abd al-Kadir was not defeated until 1847 when he was sent into exile. But Berber and Arab fighters continued to resist the French until well into the 20th century.

    TUNISIA
    At the beginning of the 19th century, Tunisia had a prosperous economy and cosmopolitan culture. Under Ahmed Bey there was a modest programme of modernisation. As in Egypt, the debts mounted up giving France an excuse to establish a Finance Commission. Tunisia became a French Protectorate in 1881.

    MOROCCO
    Morocco alone in North Africa remained independent in the 19th century. European style modernisation was instituted under Mawlay al-Hasan (1873-94) but plans for secular education and the levying of taxes met with resistance from Muslim clerics. Morocco finally lost independence in 1912 and was partitioned between France and Spain. Ten years later, the nationalist movement in Egypt triumphed and Egypt gained independence in 1922.

    LIBYA
    In 1911 Italy invaded Libya, then under Ottoman rule. Ottoman resistance collapsed and Libya was accorded nominal independence(without consulting the people of Libya). But Italy continued to occupy Libya. The commander of the fighting force of the Sanussi brotherhood, Umar al Mukhtar, defied the Italians until 1931 when he was executed.

    SENEGAL
    In 1854 Louis Faidherbe began the French conquest of the Senegal valley, and in 1863 Porto Novo (capital of modern Benin) was declared a French protectorate. There followed a series of treaties with rulers in the Ivory Coast.

    CONTRASTING STYLES
    By the end of the century the French had conceived a type of colonial rule which was highly centralised and made little effort to involve local rulers. This contrasted with the British colonial style, which in northern Nigeria took the form of indirect rule through the local Emirs and chiefs.

    NEW & OLD PLAYERS
    Despite the missionaries and the search for new trading outlets, Europeans in the first 80 years of the 19th century were not driven by any desire to rule and administer Africa. In 1865 the House of Commons committee in Britain recommended that Britain give up all her concerns on the West coast of Africa except for Sierra Leone.

    Elsewhere in West Africa, leading African merchants still worked on equal terms with European traders in the 1860's, and even enjoyed the attention of Queen Victoria.

    "We were favoured with sight of the beautiful baptismal present our beloved Queen has made to the infant of Mrs. J.P. L. Davies of Lagos, a lady well known as having enjoyed the high honour of being a protégé of her majesty.

    The royal gift consists of a beautiful gold cup and salver, with knife, fork and spoon of the same metal and design, manufactured by J. Turner of New Bond Street, London. The cup and salver are both inscribed as follows: To Victoria Davies."
    Queen Victoria quoted in the Anglo African newsletter, October 3rd 1863, on the occasion of the birth of a baby born to the leading African trader J.P.L. Davies and his wife, who was goddaughter to the Queen.

    CONTROL
    In the second half of the 19th century the piecemeal patchwork of alliances, trading colonies, protectorates and understandings yielded to sweeping changes imposed by the Europeans. No longer content with improvising as they went along, the British and the French were determined to put things in order and establish a clear administrative hierarchy with Europeans at the top and Africans below. Meanwhile, some of the oldest trading nations in Europe abandoned Africa and new players emerged. The Dutch and Danes left the continent whilst Germany, Italy and Belgium moved in. The Belgian claim to the Congo proved the most disastrous of all.

    EXPLOITATION
    Elsewhere the mineral wealth of the continent fixated and dazzled European adventurers. But soon casual commercial dealings were replaced by systematic exploitation and control. At the beginning of the 19th century the European grasp of African geography was confined mainly to the coast. But by the end of the century Europeans were straddling the continent with railways and roads. Now it was possible to take control - politically and commercially.

    UNRESOLVED TENSION
    The Scramble for Africa had the effect of defusing and displacing tensions between the European powers in Europe, but eventually the tradeoffs and alliances could not disguise the fact that Imperial Germany was on a collision course with Britain and France. Now for the first time, Africans found themselves dragged into a conflict which had its origins in the war rooms of Berlin and London. The moral posturing of European powers, supposedly representing civilisation, wisdom, reconciliation and order, soon disintegrated into the chaos, death and destruction of World War I
     
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    ole timer Forum Owner Forum Owner

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    The African Scramble

    A number of states in central and southern Africa collapsed in the 19th century, others flourished. In the 1850s the Imbangla of Kasanje lost their monopoly as long distance traders doing business with Ambaquista and Ovimbundu. Shambaa (in what is now north east of modern Tanzania) broke up in the 1860s, as did the kingdom of Luba (in what is now south east DR Congo). The Lunda empire (now part of DR Congo) was taken over by the Chokwe by the 1880s.

    In what is now western Uganda the Bunyoro lost out in 18th and early 19th century to the aggressively expansionist Baganda. Later in the 19th century with new arms at their disposal, the Bunyoro reasserted themselves, while the Baganda fell into factions allied to different Arab and European groups.


    The Ethiopian Empire had been in decline and fragmented in the 19th century, but Emperor Menelik changed its fortunes and by 1896 the Ethiopians were strong enough to inflict a crushing defeat on the Italians at Adowa. Kingless, stateless and nomadic, the Masai successfully exercised their territorial ambitions by moving into the Rift Valley and attacking the sedentary farmers. Later their victories came to nothing because of internal disputes.

    Other rulers took advantage of trade with Europeans to become rich and powerful, for example, Jaja of Opoba, the palm oil trader in the Niger Delta, and the Swahili slave trader Tippu Tip.

    Find out more about Opposition and Resistance

    Find out more about Slavery

    CHANGING SOUTH AFRICA
    Down in the South of the continent the beginning of the 19th century was marked by tremendous political upheaval with the emergence of the powerful Zulu kingdom under the highly disciplined military leadership of Shaka. The territorial expansion of the Zulus forced neighbouring peoples to move north and establish new kingdoms, displacing others in their wake. Thus the Kololos were driven North, in turn displacing the Lozi. At this point Europeans were still confined mainly to the Cape trading colony, but the discovery of diamonds in the late 1860's and gold in the 1880's inflamed European territorial ambition.

    Commercial interest became underpinned by one man's vision of imperial rule in Africa - adventurer and diamond magnate, Cecil Rhodes dreamt of Britain controlling the continent from the Cape to Cairo.

    As the century unfolded traditional rulers either learnt new strategies or fell from power. A king or chief stayed in power or was deposed depending on his ability to acquire new technology (and this meant modern guns), and by his ability to communicate efficiently and mobilise his army swiftly. These qualities became more important than ancient genealogy, ritual, inheritance and splendid isolation
     
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    Egypt and The Sudan

    RULED BY OUTSIDERS
    Since the decline of the pharaohs, Egypt had been occupied and ruled by successive waves of outsiders: the Greeks, the Romans, the Persians and Arabs.

    In the 16th century all of North Africa, apart from Morocco, fell under Ottoman rule and remained so until the 19th century. In 1811 Mohammed Ali, a high ranking Albanian army officer serving the Ottoman Empire ousted the Governor of Egypt and appointed himself ruler. He remained nominally under Ottoman authority and was carefully observed by the British, who were determined to strengthen their position in North Africa. To begin with, Mohammed Ali pursued an independent domestic and foreign policy.

    "Egypt may now almost be said to form part of Europe. It is on the high road to the Far East. It can never cease to be an object of interest to all the powers of Europe, and especially to England…

    The population is heterogeneous and cosmopolitan to a degree almost unknown elsewhere. Although the prevailing faith is that of Islam, in no country in the world is a greater variety of religious creeds to be found amongst important sections of the community."
    First British Viceroy of Egypt, Earl of Cromer's account of why the British took over Egypt.

    In 1820, with the encouragement of Britain, Mohammed Ali invaded Sudan in search of slaves and to keep his army occupied. The Funj sultanate was deposed. Southern Sudan was devastated and the Dinka still refer to the invasion as 'The time when the earth was spoilt'. Sudan was now under Egyptian rule.

    NEW VISION
    At home, Mohammed Ali was an energetic man with great vision. He launched an extensive modernisation programme for Egypt inviting foreigners to come and give technical expertise.

    Factories, primary and technical schools were built, irrigation projects were constructed, and vast tracts of land were put under cotton cultivation; the appointment of thousands of barber vaccinators greatly reduced the spread of small pox.

    BRITISH PRESSURE & THE CANAL
    For the first time Egypt had a growing number of Egyptians in its army (as opposed to foreign mercenaries). The British became anxious that Egypt was becoming too strong a force in the region. In 1838 they compelled Mohammed Ali to reduce his army and drop his protectionist trade policies. As a result, Egypt became flooded with British goods and local industry collapsed. British investment grew in Egypt and North Africa became a focus for Anglo-French rivalry. Mohammed Ali's successor Abbas, appointed General Gordon, Governor of Khartoum under pressure from the British. Under his rule, the 90 mile long Suez Canal was built with French engineering and Egyptian labour.

    "The canal is a marvellous thing and shows how the Europeans can always do whatever they set about doing. It is as long as from Mengo to Wakoli's, eighty seven miles, and is all cut through the sand, and is so deep that it will take vessels seven stories high. It is not wide - one could throw a stone or an orange across from side to side; and when two ships meet they tie on up to posts on the bank to let the other pass...

    We found workmen widening it in some places, and saw how camels worked in carrying away the sand; each camel knelt down till its panniers were filled, and then got up and went away when it was ordered to do so."
    Account of the 1902 journey from Buganda to Britain, by Ham Mukasa, official secretary to the Katikiro of Buganda. Taken from Sir Apolo Kagwa Discovers Britain.

    The canal opened up a shipping route from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean for the first time (avoiding going round Africa via the Cape of Good Hope). But in the process Egypt was tipped into bankruptcy, with a debt that grew from £3 million in 1863 to £100 million in 1879. The British and French had the excuse they needed to move in and establish dual financial control of Egypt.

    Mohammed Ali's successor, Ismail, was deposed and replaced by his son Tewfik. Resentment of British intervention grew among members of the burgeoning nationalist movement. The idea that Islam could be blended with modern scientific thought and technology grew with The Modern Movement (Salafiyya) under Mohammed Abduh who taught at the Azhar mosque university.

    Find out more about Islam

    OCCUPATION IN EGYPT, REVOLT IN SUDAN
    In June 1882 Alexandria broke out in riots, leaving several Europeans dead. The British retaliated, the Egyptian army mounted a rebellion, and by August, Tewfik's government had collapsed. The British army secured the Suez Canal and then assumed the role of an army of occupation. This intervention marked the end of Anglo French cooperation over Egypt. Taking advantage of the crisis in Egypt, the Mahdi rose up against Governor Gordon defeating him and retaining control over Sudan until General Kitchener defeated him in the battle of Omdurman. Egypt finally achieved independence in 1922
     
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    Religious Conversion

    Christian missionaries were another force against slavery and their presence increased throughout the 19th century. Sometimes they fostered trade, at other times they fell out with trader and government officials alike. The first Catholic missionaries had come to Central Africa from Portugal in 1458. But the first Protestant mission was not established until the 1792 - the Moravian Brethren in the Cape.

    Find out more about Christianity

    Some missionaries combined conversion with exploration and geography. David Livingstone, a Scottish mill worker, and the first European to cross the continent from East to West, is the obvious example.

    As more people became converted to Christianity in Africa, an increasing number became missionaries with broadly the same aims as their European colleagues: of converting people in the interior. African rulers and their people took a pragmatic approach to government emissaries and missionaries.

    Kabaka Mutesa I to Colonel Gordon, 24th March 1876:

    "To Sir Colonel Gordon, My dear Friend, I wish you good day. It is I, M'tesa, King of Uganda who sends you this letter. I wish to be the friend of the white men. Therefore, hear my words which I say.

    I want a priest who will show me the way of God.
    I want gold, silver, iron and bronze.
    I want clothing for my people and myself to wear.
    I want excellent guns and good cannons.
    I want to cause to be built good houses for my country.
    I want my people to know God."

    Missionaries offered some advantages besides salvation and a new faith. They provided a link between African rulers and European rulers, who might have arms or other commodities to sell. And they introduced literacy.

    Learning to read was an essential part of Christian conversion, so that the bible could be read in English or in an African language. The skill of reading was to change the status quo for ever. Some African rulers like the King of Rwanda and the Kabaka of Buganda opposed the spread of literacy, because it empowered people and upset the social order
     
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    Religious Resistance

    ISLAMIC RESISTANCE
    While the British were trying to stamp out the slave trade and spread the word of Christ, Berbers and Fulanis continued to preach the Islamic faith in West Africa.

    Already by 1809 all the Hausa states were under Muslim rule and Sokoto was established as the Caliphate for the region. In East Africa, Islam came from the East with the rule of the Omani sultanate; but many coastal people remained Muslim even though the power of the Sultanate began to give way to the British and Germans.

    It is estimated that nearly two thirds of Africa would have been converted to Islam had the European powers not embarked on the 'Scramble for Africa' in the 1880's.

    Islam, compared to Christianity, had a great deal more to say about the precise nature of political rule and administration. In one sense, the order imposed by Islam impressed the Europeans - the British liked to work though Muslim leaders. On the other hand, Islam also endorsed the idea of sacred war, or jihad, a war launched against nonbelievers in order to spread the word of Islam, something the British saw as a threat to colonial control.

    NORTH AFRICA
    In the 1880s Mohammed Ahmed, the Mahdi (The Redeemed one) established himself as a Muslim leader, and set out to establish a new society in Sudan. The British were determined to crush him. When he died he became celebrated as a martyr in many parts of the Muslim world.

    In Central Sudan one of the Mahdi's disciples, Rabin ibn Fadl Allah, led a resistance against the French. On his death his son followed in his footsteps and fought the French for 15 years until he died in 1901.

    In Libya the Sanussi Brotherhood fought the Italians tenaciously for twenty years until 1932.

    WEST AFRICA
    The Tukuloor Empire, located in what is now modern Mali and Burkina Faso, was founded in the 1860s by the hugely effective and militarily successful Al Haj Umar. His son Ahmadu came under growing pressure from the French in 1880s. He tried to negotiate with them in the face of growing disunity in the Empire. The French were keen to take advantage of this and very late in the day Ahmadu decided to launch a Holy War against them, calling on Muslims throughout the region; the response was weak and he was defeated by the French in 1890.

    A far more successful and formidable enemy of the French was Samori Toure who kindled some of the glory of old Mali with his Mandinka Empire, defended by an army 30,000 strong. He kept this force very mobile, constantly surprising the French and had a tremendous sense of military tactics. He used the latest quick loading guns, which his blacksmiths knew how to mend. After his death, his son was defeated by the French in 1901.

    SPIRIT MEDIUMS
    A number of rebellions against European powers were inspired by spirit mediums. This tradition of fighting off bullets with magic potions and spells goes back hundreds of years. In the 19th century these acts of resistance were common throughout Africa.

    1. MAJI MAJI
    The hated regime of cotton growing provided the impetus for rebellion against German colonial rule in Tanganika. The leader of the Maji Maji movement was Kinjikitile Ngwale, a medium possessed with a snake spirit called Hongo. He encouraged his supporters to sprinkle their bodies with magic water, known as maji maji, which they believed would protect them from bullets.

    His movement spread from his base in Ngarambe, some 200 miles south from Dar Es Salaam. Five missionaries were murdered and German reinforcements were sent in. In the end, the magic water which they thought would protect them from the German guns failed.

    Thousands were killed in battle. German revenge was terrible; a scorched earth policy wiped out whole villages and all their crops. It's estimated 250,000 died from famine.

    2. AMBUYA NEHANDA
    The Chimurenga wars 1896-7 in Matabeleland and Shonaland (in modern Zimbabwe) were inspired by traditional prophets and priests or svikiro. They blamed the Europeans for all hardship: the hut tax, forced labour, drought, rinderpest. The most famous svikiro was Ambuya Nehanda. Some 8,000 Africans died in these wars. Four hundred and fifty Europeans were killed.

    3. CHRISTIAN DISSENT
    John Chilembwe was an American trained missionary who returned to his native Nyasaland (now Malawi). He believed in a new African society based on Christian values but independent of Europeans. He attacked tax and recruitment, and led an armed insurrection against the British. He was executed in 1915.

    In Nigeria Garrick Braide called himself Elijah II and claimed the British were about to leave Nigeria because of the war - his prophesies contributed to a revolt in Kwale Ibo
     
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    Royal Resistance

    The colonisation of Africa by European powers provoked an enormous amount of resistance from different quarters - both rulers and people - all over the continent. Conflict and frustration was sparked off as African rulers tried to retain or even increase power while acquiring European support to fight their enemies.

    TRADE
    The colonial powers, in turn, took advantage of this to increase their spheres of influence. By the 1880's one of the main points of contention was trade, as African rulers tried to hang on to their monopolies and right to impose tariffs, and Europeans pressed for free trade, which put the new big trading houses in Europe at an advantage.

    A number of rulers were not prepared to compromise with European powers. Sometimes this ended in humiliation, as was the case with the Asante. For the Baganda under Mwanga it was a time of total confusion as he changed sides constantly. For the neighbouring Bunyoro, resistance proved useless. For the Ethiopians resisting the Italians ended in a resounding success. Emperor Menelik defeated the Italians at the battle of Adowa.

    Listen to Professor Bahru Zewde, Addis Ababa University, describing the Battle of Adowa

    HUMILIATION
    The Asante (in modern Ghana) came into conflict initially over the question of slave owning. Kumasi was ransacked by the British in 1874 and the Asantehene (King Prempeh) was fined.

    Listen to a British Officer's description of Prempeh I

    In 1895 the new Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, began to pursue an aggressive colonial policy, based on enforced submission and humiliation. In 1896, the Asantehene was forced into exile in the Seychelles via Sierra Leone and the Asanti fell under the authority of the Governor in Accra.

    There followed a full-scale military revolt, led by the indefatigable Yaa Asantewa (Queen Mother ). This culminated in the Governor being besieged in Kumasi. Yaa Asantewa was only defeated by a British expeditionary force in July 1900. In 1901, Asante was annexed by the British.
    CONFUSION
    Mwanga Kabaka (the king) of the Baganda was deeply suspicious of the British; he ordered the murder of the Anglican Bishop Hannington and had thirty pages in his court put to death because they had learnt to read. His policy towards Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, and Muslim emissaries fluctuated. Factions sprang up among the Baganda chiefs, and Mwanga fled from his kingdom. He later returned to his throne with a wide range of foreigners in tow: British Missionaries, French priests, Swahili traders, German adventurers, even an Irish trader in German uniform (Charles Stokes) - all hoping for a profitable agreement.

    Finally Buganda was made a Protectorate in 1894. Already under suspicion of planning a rebellion against the British, Mwanga decided to throw in his lot with his neighbour, the King of the Bunyoro (the Kabarega). Both kings were captured and sent into exile in 1899.

    Now there were three African kings in the Seychelles under order of the British. The Kabarega of the Bunyoro returned to his homeland in 1923. King Prempeh did not return to his homeland until 1924. Kabaka Mwanga died in the Seychelles in 1903.

    TRIUMPH
    The ill-prepared Italian attempt at colonisation of Ethiopia (Abyssinia as it was known then) ended in a resounding defeat for Italy in 1896 at the battle of Adowa. The Italians lost of 7,000 troops. Ethiopia lost 6,000. In October Emperor Menelik had the satisfaction of witnessing Italy recognise "absolutely and without reserve the independence of the Ethiopian Empire" in the Treaty of Addis Ababa.

    The news was greeted with rejoicing in St. Petersburg - Russia and Ethiopia enjoyed a special relationship because each had an Orthodox Church. Under Emperor Menelik's rule Ethiopia experienced unprecedented modernisation and economic growth. Foreigners were welcomed for their expertise
     
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    Political Resistance

    The colonisation of Africa by European powers provoked an enormous amount of resistance from different quarters - both rulers and people - all over the continent.

    British colonial rule was less centralised. French colonial rule was more so. In the early 1900's a desire for change began to be expressed in the form of regional movements and delegations to conferences overseas.

    At this stage politics was not national in character, except in North Africa, but rather centred on people's relationship to their chiefs and rulers, on the one hand, and colonial officials, on the other.

    An educated urban minority emerged which began to conceive of a new kind of society which would be determined neither by Europe nor by traditional rulers, neither by the past nor the present. It lay in the future, although what that might be precisely was not yet clear.

    Aborigines' Rights Protection Society was formed in the Gold Coast in 1897 as an association critical of colonial rule. In 1908, the People's Union was founded in Nigeria. The Young Senegalese Club was founded in 1910. And in 1912, Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society was founded in Nigeria. It was in Southern Africa that the first two political movements in Sub-Sahara emerged in 1912.

    Listen to the sound of military drums, which slowly become African

    LIGA ANGOLANA
    Liga Angolana was formed by a group of educated civil servants (African & mestico) with the rather vaguer aim of improving the lot of Angolans.

    ANC
    The ANC was founded under the name of the South African Native National Congress. The issues at stake were loss of land and voting rights - the Cape was the only part of the Union of South Africa with universal franchise, irrespective of ethnic origin. The ANC was conceived as an organisation representing the Rhodesias (modern Zambia and modern Zimbabwe), Basutoland (modern Lesotho), Bechuanaland (modern Botswana) and Swaziland.

    JOURNALISTS & WRITERS
    The first newspapers in Sub Saharan Africa appeared in Liberia and Angola. In the second half of the 19th century they contained increasing criticism of the European presence.

    In West Africa two leading critics were: P.Jackson, the Liberian editor of the Lagos Weekly Record, and Edward Blyden, who emigrated to Liberia from the West Indies and believed that an European style education was damaging to African people. He believed that Islam was better suited to their customs and outlook. He argued for African history to be taught and a university to be founded in West Africa.

    "…you must see at once that when a youth is sent for education from African to Europe, he must lose a great part of the very training for which he has been sent to school - viz to prepare for the work of his life. The man who, in the process of his education has not imbibed a large race feeling, in whom there is not developed pride of race, has failed in a great part of his education.

    And whatever else may be acquitted in Europe, it is evident that, for the Negro, race feeling must be kept in abeyance. And what is a man without this feeling? It is this strong race feeling - this pride of race having been instilled in the mind of the Jew from his earliest infancy, which has given to that peculiar people their unquenchable vitality."

    In Angola a vociferous and energetic circle of writers and journalists emerged in the 19th century. They have been described by historians as 'proto-nationalists' and include Jose de Nascimento (1838-1902), Joaquim Dias Cordeiro da Matta (1857-94) and Jose de Fontes Pereira (1838-91).

    In Mozambique, a comparable group of educated people formed the Associao African, and in 1910, published one of the earliest protest journals, Brado Africano
     
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    Tax Wars

    TERRIBLE TAX
    One of the central pillars of colonisation was tax. The European powers did not want Africa to be a drain on their treasuries, and they wanted the colonies to pay their own way. They also wanted people to enter into the cash economy. Taxation was a way of driving people into working for money.

    The competence of a French colonial official might often be measured by how much tax he was able to collect. This could be in the form of a poll tax or a tax on homes. For the ordinary people, especially those who were not earning money through labour or selling goods, taxation was an intolerable burden. Resentment turned to anger in many parts of Africa.

    ANGOLA'S FIRST REBELLION
    The Portuguese were the earliest Europeans to arrive in Sub-Saharan Africa back in the 15th century. But their activities were, like those of other European powers, confined largely to trading. In the late 19th century they attempted to impose some administrative control. In 1902 a tax collection exercise in Bailundo, in the centre of what is now Angola, went badly wrong when local people rebelled violently, attacking tax collectors and traders (both European and African). This was the first time that Africans had rebelled against the Portuguese in Angola.

    SIERRA LEONE HUT TAX
    The imposition of a tax on individual property in 1898 was the final straw for Temne and Mende chiefs who had seen a big increase in British intervention in the Protectorate in the 1890's, including: stamping out slavery, seizing any land without title deeds, appointing district commissioners, and increasing levels of policing.

    The Hut Tax resulted in the death of some British officials and anyone suspected of collaborating.

    Cardew, the British Governor of Sierra Leone noted 'the growing political consciousness of the African, and his increasing sense of his worth and autonomy.'

    GENOCIDE
    In South West Africa (now Namibia) the Germans played off the Herero against the Nama. But the Herero soon regretted the treaty of protection they had signed with the Germans; they were forced to pay taxes, their land was stolen. In 1904, frustrated and betrayed, they took the Germans on, destroying some farms and killing a hundred people. The German response was out of all proportion.

    "The Herero nation must leave the country. If it does not do so I shall compel them by force...Inside German territory every Herero tribesman, armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, will be shot. No women and children will be allowed in the territory: they will be driven back to their people or fired on.

    These are the last words to the great Herero nation from me, the great General of the mighty German Emperor."

    General von Trotha's extermination proclamation quoted by H. Bley's South West Africa under German Rule.

    The Germans drove the Herero into the Omaheke desert, sealing the last water holes off before erecting a fence to keep them out. Around 50,000 Herero died
     
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    Trade Wars

    FROM SLAVES TO NEW TRADE
    With the British abolition of the slave trade in 1807, the British navy took to patrolling the coasts for other nations' slave ships. The motives of the British were not entirely humanitarian. Having given up the commercial benefits of the slave trade, the British were determined to make everyone else do the same. Had they not, their share of African trade would have been much smaller.

    The anti-slave trading crusade, although inspired by moral righteousness, became a way for Britain to assert itself both commercially and territorially in Africa.

    However, stopping the slave trade was not easy. On the East coast the British met with considerable resistance from Arab merchants and the Sultan of Zanzibar himself.

    Meanwhile, in South Africa the Afrikaners were beginning to formulate a way of life not only profoundly religious but also one in which the role assigned to Africans was essentially static and subservient with no vision of change or movement.

    THE STORY OF JAJA, KING OF THE OPOBA
    In West Africa the tension grew between African merchant kings and European government officials who wanted to dismantle all monopolies and tariffs imposed by local rulers. This move towards free trade meant African monopolies being replaced by much larger European monopolies in the long term. Jaja, King of Opobo, in the Niger Delta (part of Nigeria today) had been a crucial ally of the British in the sacking of the Asanti capital Kumasi. In 1885 he asked for British Protection through the consul - Hewitt. Hewitt replied:

    "…the Queen does not want to take your country or your markets, but at the same time she is anxious that no other nations should take them. She undertakes to extend her gracious power and protection, which will leave your country still under your government: she has no wish to disturb your rule…"
    Letter 8th January 1884, quoted by Michael Crowder in The Story of Nigeria.

    British Protection was usually offered on condition that all local trade monopolies were dropped. In the case of Jaja he successfully retained his monopoly. He was determined not to lose his position as middleman and that none of his neighbours should deal with European merchants. But within two years, in 1886, the Royal Niger Company had succeeded in taking the monopoly of all trade in the region. Jaja was eventually deported to the West Indies with a pension of £800 a year
     
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    Railways

    Africa's network of railways was started in 1852 in Alexandria, Egypt and continued until the 1960's. Most of the main lines were completed by the 1920's. They were hugely expensive to build, both in terms of lives lost and financial cost. Most of them were government owned and run.

    WHY THE RAILWAY NETWORK WAS BUILT
    The reasons for embarking on these great railway projects were varied:

    TRADE
    Abbas I, the Egyptian ruler, masterminded the first railway on the continent in the mid 1850's. He was driven by a desire to bring Egypt in line with Europe (the first train ran in Britain in 1825). He also wanted to use the trains to stimulate trade.

    Emperor Menelik of Ethiopia had similar motivation. While in Egypt the railways carried goods which were already being manufactured and exported. In other parts of Africa the railways created new demands and so stimulated trade where there had been done. This was particularly the case with the Ugandan Railway running from Mombasa (on the coast of modern Kenya) to Lake Victoria (modern Uganda). The train could cut transport costs by 90-95%. Many people who earned their livelihoods as carriers were put out of work because of it.

    WAR
    Railways were built so that Europeans could better fight opponents to colonialism. In Sudan the railway from Wadi Halfa to Khartoum was part of Kitchener's subjugation of the region. Later a line was extended from Atbera eastwards to Port Sudan, initially for the purpose of transporting troops and supplied during the First World War.

    CONTROL
    The railway network provided Europeans in Sub-Saharan Africa with a means of controlling the areas where they had colonies, linking one part of a region to another. This made it possible to impose the same sets of laws and regulations over vast areas.

    The construction of the line from Lagos to Kano made the idea of a Nigerian state, embracing two very different regions, a possibility.

    MINING
    A large number of lines were built simply to transport minerals from mines to ports, with little benefit to communities on the way. In the Belgian Congo, copper from Katanga was taken to the port of Lobito in Angola on the Benguela railway. In Liberia a railway was built from the iron producing region of Nimba country to the port in Buchanan.

    RESISTANCE AND REVOLT
    Although some African rulers like Emperor Menelik and Abbas I were in favour of trains, others were suspicious and disapproving. They could see that a railway not only changed the geographical landscape but also the landscape of power and trade. The Damal of Cayor, Lat Dior Diop, in Senegal was adamant in his opposition.

    "As long as I live, be assured, I shall oppose, with all my might the construction of this railway."
    Damal of Cayor, Lat Dior Diop, to French Governor Servatius.

    The ruled, as well as their African rulers, were hostile. The Ugandan Railway, running from Mombasa (coast of modern Kenya) to Lake Victoria (modern Uganda) was built with labour from India, since Africans refused to do the back breaking work of preparing the ground and maneuvering sleepers and track into position. Once the railways were built the people who worked on them were in a strategic position, and could have huge impact on the economy if they withheld their labour.

    Strike Week
    "This has been a very exciting week. What a pity we haven't daily papers in Freetown. By this time it's rather stale to talk of the splendid fight which Railway and Public Works Men have put up for their war bonuses (given to Indian and European mechanics)...

    If R. Barker, the blundering Acting General Manager and locomotive Superintendent of the Railways did think once that Sierra Leoneans could only bark without biting, then he is shockingly disillusioned. It is grand the way the fellows have stuck together."
    Sierra Leone Weekly News, 19 July 1919, 'Rambling Talks' by the Rambler.

    In Southern and East Africa segregation of the staff and their facilities caused friction.

    Listen to Kenya's last steam train driver talk about segregation on the railways



    TIMETABLE FOR COMPLETION OF MAJOR TRACKS
    NORTH AFRICA
    country starting point finish date of completion
    Egypt Alexandria Cairo 1856
    Sudan Wadi Halfa Khartoum 1898
    Morocco Casablanca Rabat 1923
    Tunisia Tunis 1919
    Algeria Algiers 1919

    EAST AFRICA
    country starting point finish date of completion
    Djibouti/Ethiopia Djibouit Addis 1917
    Kenya/Uganda Mombasa Lake Victoria 1901
    Tanganyika Tanga Usambara hills 1905

    WEST AFRICA
    country starting point finish date of completion
    Sierra Leone Freetown 1909
    Nigeria Lagos Kano 1912
    Ghana Sekondi Kumasi 1903
    Congo Brazzaville Pointe Noire 1932

    SOUTHERN AFRICA
    country starting point finish date of completion
    South Africa/ Zimbabwe Capetown Bulawayo 1897
    Congo/Angola Copper belt Benguela 1931
     
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    Forces For Change


    DISCOVERY OF QUININE
    One of the main obstacles to European penetration of large parts of Africa was malaria. Africans had lived with mosquitoes spreading Malaria for generations, many had some sort of resistance or capacity to fight a malaria attack. This was not the case with Europeans who died in great numbers. The coast of Sierra Leone was known as the White Man's Grave because of this.

    Once Europeans could protect themselves from malaria with quinine, which they began to use in the 1850's, they became increasingly less reliant on Africans helping them achieve their objectives.

    STEAM ENGINE
    The steam engine was invented in 1804 by Richard Trevithick. The first engine used to pull carriages was Stevenson's Rocket in 1825. Only 28 years later in 1853, the first railway track on the continent of Africa was opened in Egypt between Kafr-el-Zayat and Alexandria, commissioned by the Khedive of Egypt, Abbas I.

    TELEGRAPH
    In 1885, the African Direct Telegraph company was formed to lay a cable from Europe to the West Coast of Africa. The first cabled news came through Reuters to Nigeria in 1910. The Nigerian Daily Times was the first subscriber.

    GUN DESIGN
    The old muskets first made in the 17th century took one whole minute to load before giving off one shot, which three times out of ten misfired. These gave way to the breech loading rifles in 1866 which were quick loading, (cartridges were used, not loose gunpowder), shot further and were more accurate. Even more fire power was afforded by the repeating rifles which the French adopted in 1885 in West Africa. In the 1830's, Africans and Europeans had comparable firepower. By the 1880's, Europeans had superior fire power.

    Arab-Swahili slave trader Tippu Tip in conversation with explorer H. M. Stanley:
    "'With this gun you can fire fifteen shots at a time.'(said Stanley). But we knew nothing of a fifteen shot gun…I asked him: 'From one barrel?' And he replied: 'They come out of one barrel.' Then I said to him: 'Fire it off, that we may see.' But he said: 'I will sooner pay twenty or thirty dollars than fire off a single cartridge.'

    Then I thought in my heart: 'He is lying. That is a rifle with one barrel, and the second thing there must be the ramrod. How can the bullets come one after another out of the one barrel...

    Then he rose at once, went outside and fired twelve shots. He also seized a pistol and let off six shots. After this he came back and seated himself. We were mightily astonished. I begged him, 'Show me how you load.' He showed me."


    Superior European fire power was clearly demonstrated in the battle of Omdurman fought in 1898 by the British against the Mahdi; 10,800 Sudanese were killed, but the British only lost forty nine.

    RUBBER TYRES
    In 1890 Dunlop produced the first rubber tyres, greatly improving the comfort of a bicycle ride and later driving a car. King Leopold meanwhile, was getting into debt with his Free State of Congo. Luckily for King Leopold and most tragically for everyone who lived in the Congo, wild rubber grew there. The King set about forcing production in a regime of terror, where whole communities were destroyed. People were killed and their hands severed if they refused to collect enough rubber.

    "Lined up…are 40 emaciated sons of an African village, each carrying his little basket of rubber. The toll of rubber is weighed and accepted, but…four baskets are short of the demand. The order is brutally short and sharp - quickly the first defaulter is seized by four lusty 'executioners', thrown on the bare ground, pinioned hands and feet, whilst a fifth steps forward carrying a long whip of twisted hippo hide.

    Swiftly and without cessation the whip falls, and the sharp corrugated edges cut deep into the flesh - on back, shoulders and buttocks blood spurts from a dozen places. In vain, the victim twists in the grip of the executioners, and then the whip cuts other parts of the quivering body...

    Following hard upon this decisive incident was another. Breakfast was just finished when an African father rushed up the veranda steps of our mud house and laid upon the ground the hand and foot of his little daughter, whose age could not have been more than five years."

    From an account given by Rev. John Harris, Baptist Missionary recently returned from Congo 1906, quoted in King Leopold's Ghost, by Adam Hochschild
     
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    Remarkable Facts

    Egypt like other parts of Africa suffered from plague and cholera in the first half of the 19th century, with 200,000 people dying in 1835 alone.

    One theory about the source of the Niger proposed that the river flowed into a great lake, where it evaporated like water in a sink.

    The sister of King Leopold of Belgium became the Empress of Mexico. She went mad when her husband was executed by Mexican rebels
     
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    Africa & Europe Timeline





    1805 - Mohammed Ali comes to power in Egypt.


    1807 - British abolish slave trade

    1808 - Sierra Leone declared a colony

    1816 - Gambia occupied by British

    1820 - British settlers land on Eastern Cape

    1820-34 - Mfecane (crushing) establishes Zulus as leading kingdom in South Africa

    1822 - Liberia colony established

    1830 - French occupy Algiers

    1834 - Slavery abolished in British Empire

    1835 - Great Trek across Orange and Vaal rivers begins

    1838 - Piet Retief killed by Dingane & Zulus & Vortrekkers in Natal.
    Boers beat Dingane Zulus

    1842 - Britain takes Natal

    1847 - Liberia declares independence.
    Slavery abolished throughout the French Empire

    1852 - Transvaal declared independent

    1854 - Louis Faidherbe conquers Senegal Valley for the French.
    First railway on continent in Egypt (from Alexandria)

    1861 - US recognises Liberia
    Britain occupies Lagos

    1863 - French declare Protectorate over Porto Novo (Dahomey)

    1866 - French establish trading posts on Guinea Coast

    1867 - First diamonds found in South Africa - Hopetown, Cape Colony

    1868 - French Protectorate treaties Ivory Coast.
    Emperor Theodor of Ethiopia commits suicide.
    British annex Basutoland at invitation of King Mosheshwe

    1869 - Completion of Suez Canal

    1870 - Lobengula becomes king of Ndebele.
    Diamond rush to Griqualand South Africa

    1872 - Cape Colony made self-governing

    1874 - Kumasi, capital of Asanti, sacked by British

    1876 - Egypt bankrupt - Anglo French control established
    King Leopold of Belgian founds International African Association

    1877 - Britain annexes territory from Walvis Bay (modern Namibia) to Cape.
    Shepstone annexes Transvaal for British despite protest of Afrikaners

    1878 - Berlin Congress

    1879 - Zulu War

    1881 - French proclaim protectorate in Tunisia Boers invade Natal and are defeated

    1882 - Egypt occupied by British army after riots in Alexandria

    1884 - The Berlin Conference
    USA recognises King Leopold's so called Congo Free State

    1885 - First telegraph cable laid between West Africa and Europe
    Mahdi takes Khartoum, death of Governor General Gordon
    Germany annexes East Africa
    British declared Protectorate over Bechuanaland
    Bishop Hannington murdered on order of Kabaka (king) of Buganda

    1886 - Christians put to death in Buganda by Kabaka (king) Mwanga

    1890 - Dunlop invents the pneumatic tyre

    1894 - Uganda made Protectorate

    1896 - Asantehene (king of Asanti) forced into exile by British
    Chimurenga war breaks out in Southern Africa

    1897 - Khartoum retaken for British by Lord Kitchener

    1899 - Kabaka (king) of Buganda and Kabarega (king) of Banyoro sent into exile by British

    1904 - 50,000 Herero driven into desert by Germans and die

    1912 - ANC established as South African Native Congress
    Trade in fire arms forbidden by Portuguese in Angola
    Liga Angolana established

    1914 - Outbreak World War I

    1916 - Tax riots in Yorubaland (Nigeria