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War of the First Coalition

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Aug 8, 2014
War of the First Coalition

The Legislative Assembly of France Declares War on Austria

The War of the First Coalition (1792?1797) was the first major effort of multiple European states to contain Revolutionary France. France declared war on Austria (20 April 1792) and Prussia joined on the Austrian side a few weeks later.

These powers initiated a series of invasions of France by land and sea, with Prussia and Austria attacking from the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhine, and Great Britain supporting revolts in provincial France and laying siege to Toulon. France suffered reverses (Battle of Neerwinden, 18 March 1793) and internal strife (Revolt in the Vend?e), and responded with extreme measures: the Committee of Public Safety formed (6 April 1793) and the lev?e en masse drafted all potential soldiers aged 18 to 25 (August 1793). The new French armies counter-attacked, repelled the invaders, and moved beyond France. French arms established the Batavian Republic as a satellite state (May 1795) and gained the Prussian Rhineland by the first Treaty of Basel. With the Treaty of Campo Formio, the Holy Roman Empire ceded the Austrian Netherlands to France and Northern Italy was turned into several French ?Sister Republics?. Spain made a separate peace accord with France (second Treaty of Basel) and the French Directory carried out plans to conquer more of Germany and northern Italy (1795).

North of the Alps, Archduke Charles of Austria redressed the situation in 1796, but Napoleon carried all before him against Sardinia and Austria in northern Italy (1796?1797) near the Po Valley, culminating in the peace of Leoben and the Treaty of Campo Formio (October 1797). The First Coalition collapsed, leaving only Britain in the field fighting against France.

Battles of the War of the First Coalition 1792-1797
◾Battle of Valmy (September 20, 1792)
◾Battle of Jemappes (November 6, 1792)
◾Battle of Neerwinden (March 18, 1793)
◾Battle of Wattignies (October 15-17, 1793)
◾Battle of Tourcoing (May 17-18, 1794)
◾Battle of Fleurus (June 26, 1794)
◾Battle of Montenotte (April 12, 1796)
◾Battle of Dego (April 14-15, 1796)
◾Battle of Lodi (May 10, 1796)
◾Battle of Castiglione (August 5, 1796)
◾Battle of Neresheim (August 11, 1796)
◾Battle of Arcola (November 15-17, 1796)
◾Battle of Rivoli (January 14-15, 1797)